About Humic acids

1 humic acid source and classification

Humic acid is generally considered complex, heterogeneous mixture of molecular weight hydroxy carboxylic one. Lignite, peat and weathered coal humic acid content is high, the main source of extraction of humic acid. Humic acid from weathered coal extraction rate in the highest, followed by lignite, peat minimum.

According to the conventional method of soil science, it can be divided into humic acid humic acid, fulvic acid and humin three components. It was also the humic divided into three categories: not dissolved in an alkaline solution, called black rot acid can be dissolved in an acidic solution; only dissolved in an alkaline solution, it can not be dissolved in an acidic solution called brown rot acid; 1 of both dissolved in an alkaline solution, but dissolved in the acidic solution King Tong FA.

2 humic acid characteristics

Humic acid is an organic acid from a polymer composed of aromatic and variety of functional groups, and has good physical activity and absorption, complexation, switching and other functions. Humic acid can promote the formation of soil aggregate structure, enhance soil permeability, enhance soil water, fertilizer capacity; also be a stimulus effect on plant growth, enhance its drought, cold, diseases and pests and other capabilities, in addition to also improve the quality of agricultural products ; stimulate soil microbial activity and improve adequate carbon, nitrogen, microbes improve the living environment, increase the number of beneficial microorganisms in soil and soil enzyme activities. 2

3. Classification of humic acid fertilizer

Preparation of different humic acid fertilizer is generally divided into the following categories:

– Humic acid salts (potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, ammonium, boron, etc.)

– Humic acid derivatives (NHA, NHA salt, humic compounds context, etc.) 5

– Humic a resin copolymer (humic Superabsorbent, humic acid soil conditioner)

– Fulvic acid fertilizer (fulvic acid drought-resistant agents, fulvic acid nutrient liquid fertilizer, compound fertilizer fulvic acid particles)

– Long elemental fertilizer humic acid (long-acting humic acid urea, long-acting humic acid fertilizer)

– Humic acid organic and inorganic fertilizer (various specialty fertilizer)

Humic acid fertilizer according to different modes of administration, humic acid fertilizer can be divided into the following categories: 10

– Soaking, dipping fertilizer (humic acid sodium, potassium humic acid, fulvic acid, drought-resistant agents)

– Foliar spray or root fertilization (humic acid sodium, potassium humic acid, fulvic acid drought-resistant agents, fulvic acid nutrient liquid fertilizer, humic acid liquid fertilizer)

– Field with the basal or top dressing (humates, humic acid derivatives, long-term humic acid elemental fertilizer, humic acid organic and inorganic fertilizer, humic acid fertilizer)

– Amelioration Feitian fertilizer (humic acid Superabsorbent, humic acid soil conditioner)

1 腐植酸的来源和分类

一般认为腐植酸是复杂的、分子量不均一的羟基苯羧酸的混合物。褐煤、草炭和风化煤的腐植酸含量较高,是提取腐植酸的主要来源。腐植酸的提取率以风化煤最高,褐煤次之,草炭最低。

根据土壤学的传统方法,可将腐植酸分为胡敏酸、富里酸和胡敏素3个组分。也有人将腐植酸分为3类:不溶解在碱性溶液中,能溶解在酸性溶液中的叫黑腐酸;只溶解在碱性溶液中,不能溶解在酸性溶液中的叫棕腐酸;既能溶解在碱1性溶液中,又能溶解在酸性溶液中的叫黄腐酸。

2 腐植酸的特点

腐植酸是由芳香族及多种官能团构成的高分子有机酸,具有良好的生理活性和吸收、络合、交换等功能。腐植酸可以促进土壤团粒结构形成, 增强土壤通透性, 增强土壤保水、保肥能力;也可以对植物生长产生刺激效果,增强其抗旱、抗寒、抗病虫害等能力,此外还能提高农产品品质;刺激土壤微生物的活动,并提高充足的碳、氮元素,改善微生物生活环境,增加土壤有益微生物的数量和土壤酶活性。2

3.腐植酸肥料的分类

按制备工艺的不同,腐植酸肥料一般分为以下几类:

—腐植酸盐(钾、钠、钙、镁、铵、硼等)

—腐植酸衍生物(硝基腐植酸、硝基腐植酸盐、腐植酸脉络合物等)5

—腐植酸一树脂共聚物(腐植酸高吸水树脂、腐植酸土壤改良剂)

—黄腐酸类肥料(黄腐酸抗旱剂、黄腐酸营养液肥、黄腐酸颗粒复合肥)

—长效腐植酸单质肥(长效腐植酸尿素、长效腐植酸磷肥)

—腐植酸有机无机复合肥(各种专用肥)

腐植酸生物肥按施用方式的不同,腐植酸肥料又可分为以下几类:10

—浸种、蘸根用肥(腐植酸钠、腐植酸钾、黄腐酸抗旱剂)

—叶面喷洒或根部冲施肥(腐植酸钠、腐植酸钾、黄腐酸抗旱剂、黄腐酸营养液肥、腐植酸液肥)

—大田用基肥或追肥(腐植酸盐、腐植酸衍生物、长效腐植酸单质肥、腐植酸有机无机复合肥、腐植酸生物肥)

—改土肥田用肥(腐植酸高吸水树脂、腐植酸土壤改良剂)

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